The World Cup begins in just over a day so I thought I’d update and repost an article I wrote about the debate over what to call soccer/football.
While living in the UK, I learned that British people hate the use of ‘soccer’ to describe their favorite sport. As a culturally sensitive person, I dutifully referred to the sport as ‘football’ and referred to America’s most popular sport as ‘American football’. I was cool with that. I’m in their country; I’ll follow their customs.
Just like I gave in to the use of ‘lifts’ instead of ‘elevators’, ‘trainers’ instead of ‘sneakers’, and ‘trousers’ instead of ‘pants’. Now that I’m back in an American English environment, I’ve slowly resorted back to my native dialect. Still, I find myself using ‘mobile’ instead of ‘cell phone’; it just sounds cooler. And I’ve given in to the near universal use of ‘toilet’ instead of ‘restroom’. It’s a distasteful word to American ears, but just about every country outside of the US use some form of it.
What surprised me was the anger and bitterness towards the American use of the word ‘soccer’ instead of ‘football’. It is somehow the symbol of American imperialism. And this attitude extended to some of my other European and South American friends too.
Puzzled by the vitriol, I did a little research. So I’m going to give you a little history lesson and dispel some myths about what we call that sport with a bunch of people running around kicking a ball into the opposing team’s net.
Myth 1: Soccer is an American term.
The word originated in England back in the mid 19th century. Soccer was the original shorthand expression to refer to the sport. It was shortened from association football. At the time, there were many kinds of football, so it needed to be distinguished from all the other forms. American football and rugby are some of the other forms of football that also arose from those earlier sports.
Myth 2: The US is the only country that calls it soccer.
I was surprised to find that in Ireland, they also refer to the sport as soccer, and view the use of the word with anti-British-imperialist pride. Other countries that call it soccer include Word Cup participants, Australia, New Zealand, Japan (called sacca), and World Cup host South Africa. Add Canada (including Quebec where it’s called, not joking, ‘le soccer’), and most Pacific Islands.
Interestingly, all the countries, except Japan, were former colonies of Britain. Apparently, the official national soccer organizations in Australia and South Africa have succumbed to using ‘football’, but the general populace still cling to the more counter-hegemonic term.
Myth 3: Americans want the rest of the world to call it soccer too, as part of an insidious imperialist plot.
I assure you, I don’t know one American who really gives a damn what anyone calls it. The widespread use of ‘football’ stems from past British colonialism (aside from the countries listed above). Spanish and Portuguese speaking countries tried to replace the English word with native words (balompie and ludopedio, respectively). But were unsuccessful against the onslaught of British hegemony.
Myth 4: Well, okay a few countries say ‘soccer’. But the rest of the world calls it ‘football’.
Not so. Of the 32 World Cup participants only 4 countries actually use ‘football’. That would be England and its former West African colonies, Nigeria, Ghana and Cameroon.
Fifteen other countries use variations of the word football, like ‘Fußball’ (Germany), ‘fútbol’ (the 7 Spanish speaking countries), ‘le foot’ (the 2 francophone nations), ‘Voetbal’ (the Dutch), ‘fodbold’ (the Danes), and ‘fudbal’ (Serbia).
What about some of the other World Cup teams? Football powerhouse Italy calls it ‘calcio’, which means kick. The Slovenians call it ‘nogomet’, which means leg sweep. It’s ‘fucik’ in Slovakia (careful how you say that one). The Greeks call it ‘podosfero’. The Swiss call it ‘schútte’. Both the Korean teams call it ‘chook-gu’. In Algeria, and the rest of the Arabic speaking world, it’s ‘kurat al-qadam’.
Here are some of my other favorites around the world. In China it’s ‘zuqiu’ (I strained my neck trying to pronounce that). In Polish, it’s ‘pika nozna’. The Czechs call it ‘kopana’, which also means kick.
Obviously, the terms used for soccer are as diverse as the world itself.
Myth 4: Fine. But the sport came from England so it should be called whatever they want.
Games involving kicking a ball has been found in nearly all cultures throughout human history. The earliest recorded sport using a ball and feet control date from the 3rd century BC in China, and it was called ‘cuju’. Maybe we should be calling the sport ‘cuju’, instead of the insidious British imperial term.
So there you have it. I realize that the US is the top dog in the world, wreaking imperialist havoc, so it’s fashionable to bash all things American. But there are many forms of football, and association football, or soccer, is just one of them. The pattern seems to be that where other forms of football are popular, that sport has taken on that term. Thus, what looks to me like rugby is called football in Ireland, Australia, and New Zealand. And what’s football to me, looks like ebbing imperial influence in Great Britain.